Composition of toothpaste
In the arsenal of hygienic means the modern toothpastes appeared relatively recently — for a long time prevailed tooth powders are made from chalk. However they greatly damage the tooth enamel and is therefore practically not used. Teeth before brushing with powder made from the crushed horns and pumice, that is too much damage the tooth. Main components included in modern toothpaste composition are abrasive (cleaning and polishing), gel - and foam-forming substances. In addition, the composition of modern toothpastes, depending on their destination, have antiseptics, bleaching agents, aromatic and flavor additives.
But the main component included in toothpaste and scouring powders, which were produced earlier, was only chalk, and now the most commonly used calcium phosphates. Gel-forming substances improve the consistency and stability of the modern tooth pastes. For children with baby teeth and adults with damaged tooth enamel are made gel paste — no abrasives. Natural gel-forming substances — derivatives of polysaccharides — are got from seaweed. And synthetic gel-forming substances are cellulose derivatives. To retain moisture during storage, and to improve taste properties and stability of foam the polyhydric alcohols, sorbitol, glycerol, polyethylene glycolsin is injected to modern toothpaste composition. The addition of surfactants increases the cleaning and foaming properties.
As anti-caries components used fluorine-containing substances: fluorides of sodium, tin, calcium, sodium monoftorfosfat Na2PO3F. Suppose that under the action of fluorine on the substance to the tooth enamel is hydroxyapatite Cal0R2(PO4)6 (R = OH, Cl or F) forms a fluorapatite that is more resistant to the corrosive effects of acids. In addition, fluorine compounds inhibit the activity of bacteria.
Composition of cream for skin care
Composition of cream for skin care includes colloidal system — emulsion. For stabilization use emulsifiers. Emulsions can be of two types: "oil in water" and "water in oil". Oily or fatty components of cream designed to replenish the loss of sebum, moisture and protect skin from harmful atmospheric influences. Water moisturizes the skin and enhances the absorption of dietary supplements.
About the beneficial effects on the skin milk is a natural emulsion type "oil in water" — is known from time immemorial. Nowadays we have information that the wife of the Emperor Nero Poppaea took 100 of herd donkeysthen then go into exile, to take a bath of their milk. Queen Cleopatra took milk baths also.
Good for healthy skin pH is 5-6, and creams should be slightly acidic reaction. Stable emulsions with a pH=5 can get only with the use of nonionic (i.e., not having a charged functional group) emulsifiers. As emulsifiers in composition of cream is entered ethylene glycol CH2—CH2, alcohols, acids, alkylphenols, and condensation products of polyhydric alcohols and fatty acids, such as lauric and oleic acids. Of course, the "factory of beauty" to compete with the volume of production, of sulfuric acid is not necessary. But people want to be beautiful, and because thousands of research laboratories worldwide continue to improve it arsenal.
Some manufacturers of creams (AVON, for example) is added activin to the composition of cream. Activin is a powerful antioxidant that has harmful effects to resistance of acid radicals - the main agents of skin aging. Technology of activin based on the action of 2 plant components:
- extract of tubers and roots of amorphous stimulates the production of activin;
- flower extract of sesbania leaf,that is strengt and supports the skin's structure, ensuring its elasticity. Other substances and vitamins useful for skin You can found here:Substances useful for skin
Composition of cream for hands and face
When the household hands can be contaminated with different chemicals (including cleaning products and detergents), it couse to the skin dries up, cracks and starts to peel off, often inflamed. In Bulgaria are produced a highly efficient creams for hands, protecting the hands from chemical exposure, from pollutants in the skin, from water, softening and nourishing the skin.
Cream for hands is used for rough and dry hands. It contains vitamin F and glycerin. With use it, skin becomes soft, smooth and delicate.
In composition of cream for face (not only) can include bee honey. This cream has a soothing effect for face, easily absorbed and leaves no greasy residue. If you use day cream, this cream consists of concentrate of nutrients and therapeutic substances, enriched with vitamins A and E. It contains honey, enriched with plant hormones. This cream is designed to care for normal and mixed skin types.
Cream face mask provide intensive nourishment for the skin. When applying thick layer of cream the emission (evaporation) of moisture from the skin stops, while the biologically active components of the cream are easily absorbed. This activates blood circulation and wrinkles. Creams for face well refresh the skin.
Among cream for hands you can meet lemon cream, that includes citric acid and essential oil from lemon peel and, of course, vitamin C. This cream normalizes the moisture to dry skin and gives it smoothness and elasticity. This effect is achieved by the formation on the surface of the skin thin (invisible) film that prevents the evaporation of moisture and protects from harmful effects of the environment. in addition, the lemon craem has a slightly bleaching effect.
Regenerating cream (the same cream - anti-wrinkle) is recommended to improve the condition of aging skin. The composition of regenerating cream may include mink oil, which is well absorbed by the skin. By the way, mink oil chemical composition is similar to human fat. This cream contains vitamins A, E, D.
Vitaminized cream is suitable for normal and dry skin. It contains vitamin A and F, has a beneficial effect for the skin, easy absorbed.
In the stores often can be found cream - milk, it is with medicinal properties very good for the skin. It cleans the face from dirt and makeup, has a bleaching action and helps to eliminate freckles and dark age spots. It is property of milk because it contain a weak organic acid. And besides, cream- milk refreshes and tones the skin.
Among the many creams there are also those that contain vegetable protein moisturizer in combination with vitamin E. This cream has a softening and moisturizing effect and is suitable for care for dry and oily skin.
Special night cream are designed to care for normal and dry skin. They may contain lanolin and beeswax and biologically active components of bee honey, D-panthenol, vitamin A and E, protect the skin from harmful influences and tone it.
Cream for face is used for removal of secretion of sebaceous glands. Frequent face washing with soap leads to dry skin and to appearance of wrinkles. The cream normalizes the humidity and the oiliness of the skin. The cleansing cream is applied (after moisten the face with water) with circular motions by fingers, then wash with water.
Some creams have a therapeutic purpose and are suitable for young skin types prone to inflammation. The composition of cream may include extract of horsetail or horse chestnut, which stimulates the circulation and has regeneration action.
Real massage cream must meet a number of requirements: not to irritate the skin, have a good slide, to be soft, well-applied on the skin and easily removed it!
So, a good massage cream is an emulsion of solid and liquid oils composed of hydrocarbons (such as paraffins), petrolatum, beeswax, lanolin, cocoa oils and sunflower oil. Oils dissolve dirt, makeup and powder. In massage cream can be found biologically active substances and vitamins.
Bulgarian massage creams fully meet the basic requirements. They include vitamins A, E, F, and the extract of chamomile. By the way, chamomile has anti-inflammatory action, softens and soothes the skin. The cream contains essential oils, tannin, phytosterol and dixieman (have a calming effect). Hypericum extract improves metabolism, regenerates cells, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, has anti-inflammatory and disinfecting action, but also nourishes, tones and refreshes the skin!
Cream NIVEA was created in 1911 by the pharmacist Oscar Troplowitz and professor - dermatologist Paul Gerson Annoy. It represented the first stable cream of water-in-oil emulsion. And opened the substance Eucerit allowed to combine water and oil. Later cream NIVEA called the mother of all creams.
The name of this cream comes from the Latin "white". First, the jar of cream was not blue, but yellow. The form of cream jar, that we are accustomed, was introduced in 1925. At first this cream was sold in pharmacies, then 20 years later, it is appeared in shops stores.
The production of cream is located in Hamburg (Germany). There is a daily stamp of 500,000 blue bottles of 50 and produced 150 tons of cream. But if you add up all sold for 100 years of NIVEA jars (one to another), the height of this pyramid is almost long and enough to reach the moon!
Acid radicals (or chimecal free radicals) - unstable active particles that have free electrons on external electronic level. Acid radicals have a charge and very high activity.
Acid radicals damage and destroy skin cells with destruction of elastin in the skin, thus, leads to premature aging.
To reduce the influence of acid radicals you need to choose the means to care for skin has vitamin A, vitamin C and E.
Estheticians all over the world pay special attention to vitamin C, which is the most effective rejuvenates the skin by enhancing cellular processes.