Crystal growing. What you need to know!
Growing crystals - пthe process is very interesting, but it is long.It is useful to know what processes manage its growth; why different substances to form crystals of various forms, and some of them do not form and what to do, to get big and beautiful crystal.
If crystallization is very slow, then you get large crystal if crystallization is fast, then many small (or polycrystal, such as crystals of metals).
Crystal growing at home is produced different ways. For example, cooling saturated solution. With decreasing temperature solubility of substances is decreased (this mainly applies to the anhydrous salt), and the crystals fall out. First, tiny crystals-germs appear in solution and in the walls. When cooling is slow, and the solution has not solid impurities (for example, dust), embryos formed a little, and they gradually turn into a beautiful crystals correct form. With the rapid cooling there are many small crystals, almost no one has the correct form, because they are full and they interfere each other.
Growing crystals can be done in another way - gradual removal of water from a saturated solution. And in this case, the slower water is removed, the better the result. Leave a vessel with the solution at room temperature for long time, covering the vessel with the solution by paper, " the water will evaporate slowly, and dust in the solution will not get. Growing crystal, you can either hang in a saturated solution on the thin solid line or put them on the bottom of the vessel. In last case, the crystal periodically necessary to turn to the other side. As the evaporation of the water in the vessel should add a fresh solution. Even if our original crystal had the wrong form, it will correct all of its flaws itself soonand will take the form specific to the substance, for example, will turn into an octahedron, if to use salt of gromokleya alum, diamond - if you are using copper sulphate
Growing crystals - is the process fun, but it requires careful and cautious attitude to their work. Theoretically, the amount of crystal that can be grown at home in this way, unlimited. There are cases when enthusiasts have obtained crystals size that could raised only with the help.
But unfortunately there are some features of their storage (of course each salt and substance have their peculiarities). For example, if the crystal of alum be left in open dry air, it will gradually lose water and turn into gray powder. To protect it from destruction, it must be coated with lacquer. Copper sulphate and sodium - more persistent and may be used to work with them.
How to grow crystal
Grow crystal can be from different substances: for example, from sugar, even stone - artificial stones growing, with respect strict rules of temperature, pressure, humidity and other factors (artificial rubies, amethysts, quartz, citrine).
At home, of course, all of this we did not succeed, so do the other way. Will grow salt crystals. We all have at home ordinary food salt (as you probably know, its chemical name sodium chloride NaCl). The fit any other salt (salt - from a chemical point), for example, you can get a beautiful blue crystals of copper sulphate or any other sulphate (for example, green iron sulphate). You can use alum (double salts of metals, sulfuric acid), sodium thiosulfate (previously it was used for making photos).
For all of these salts does not require any specific conditions: made a solution, put the "embryo" in it solution and it grows itself, every day, adding to the growth.
But do not paint the solution, where growing Your crystal, such as paints or something similar, it will spoil the solution? and the crystal still not paint! The best way to get colored crystals is to pick the colored Solt! But be careful: for example, the yellow crystals blood salt have a red-orange color and the solution turns to yellow.
Now you can start!
Growing crystal of food salt
Crystals of food salt - The process of growing does not require any special chemicals. All we have food salt, which we take in food. You can also call it stone salt. сrystals of food salt NaCl are colorless transparent cubes.
Let's start. Prepare a solution of food salt as follows: pour water into a container (glass) and put it in a pan with warm water (not more than 50 C - 60 C). Of course, ideally, if the water does not contain any dissolved salts (distilled), but in this case you can use tap water. Sprinkle salt in a glass and leave for 5 minutes, after well mixing. For this time, the glass of water will heat up, and salt will dissolve. It is desirable that the water temperature has not decreased. Then add salt and mix again. Repeat this step until the food salt not disappears and it will fall on the bottom of the glass.
We got a saturated salt solution. Pour it into a clean container same amount, without salt on the bottom of the glass.
Choose a any crystal of salt and put it on the bottom of the glass with a saturated solution. But desirable You can attach the crystal for the thread and hang it that it does not touch the walls of the glass.
Now you need to wait.
In a couple of days, you may notice significant for crystal growth. Every day it will grow. And if you do all the same again (to cook a saturated solution of salt and put the crystal it in), then it will grow much faster (remove the crystal and use already prepared solution by adding water and the necessary portion of salt). Remember that the solution should be saturated, and when it preparation the salt always must be remain on the bottom of the glass (just in case).
For information: in 100 g of water at a temperature of 20 C can be dissolved approximately 35 g of salt. With increasing temperature the solubility of salts increas.
So grow the crystals of salt (or salt crystals, shape and color which You like more)
Growing crystal of copper sulphate
Crystals of copper sulphate - are grown, as well as with food salt: first, prepare a saturated salt solution, then favourite little crystal lowered in this solutionof copper sulphate.
Attention! copper sulphate is reactive salt! Therefore, for the successful experience in this case, the water we need to take distilled, i.e. not containing other dissolved salts. The tap water is also not to take better, as it first contains dissolved salts, secondly can be heavily chlorinated. Impurities (especially carbonates in hard like) enter into chemical reactions with copper sulphate, therefore the solution is spoiled.
If You decide not to pour the solution from the tank, where grew up small crystal, then hang the crystal to not touch it other crystals!
The crystal growing is produced not only with solutions, but also with molten salts. A vivid example is the yellow opaque sulfur crystals, that have the form of a rhombus or extruded prisms. But with sulfur, particularly, to work is not advised. Gas produced by its evaporation is harmful.
You can avoid the growth of individual faces of the crystal. To do this, these faces necessary to put with vaseline or fat.
Growing crystals of copper:
Now, grow red crystals of copper. We need copper sulfate, sodium chloride, steel plate in the shape of the section capacity (slightly smaller perimeter). You can use the steel shavings, where grow crystals of copper and circle of blotting paper in the form of a cross section.
So put a little bit of copper sulphate to the bottom of the capacity (evenly over the area). Sprinkle salt on top and close it's by circle of blotting paper. Put on it the iron plate (steel shavings). All should be poured over a saturated solution of sodium chloride. Leave the capacity for approximately one week. During this time, will grow red crystals of copper. Desirable not to carry capacity, and not to remove crystals from the solution.
Can be grown crystal multi-colored and multi-layer. They are obtained by cooking solutions alum (double salts sulphuric acid) and transferred the crystal from from one solution to another.
If you mix hot concentrated solution of aluminium sulphate Al2(SO4)3 and potassium sulphate K2(SO4), and the mixture is cool, it will start to crystallize alum - double potassium sulfate and aluminum 2KAl(SO4)2•12Н2О. Alum dissolve in water: 5.9 g per 100 g of water at 20 C, but already 109 g - at 90 C, calculated on the anhydrous salt. When it stored on the air the alum destroyed. At a temperature of 92.5 C, they melt in your water of crystallization, and when heated to 120 C dehydrated, passing in burnt alum, which destroyed only at temperatures above 700 °.The water molecules that are part of alum, related chemical bond with ions potassium and aluminium, therefore salt alum have the formula, which is better written as a complex salt [K(H2O)6][Al(H2O)6](SO4)2.
Something about liquid crystals
Liquid crystals — hese are substances that act as both liquid and solid body. Molecules in liquid crystals, on the one hand, quite mobile, on the other - are regularly, forming a kind of crystal structure (one-dimensional or two-dimensional). Often then heating correct location of the molecules is broken, and liquid crystal becomes conventional liquid. But, if temperature low, they freeze and go into a solid crystals. Regular arrangement of molecules in liquid crystals causes their special optical properties. Their properties can be controlled, exposing a magnetic or electric field. It is used in liquid crystal indicators hours, calculators, some computers and some models of TVs.
So, the processвcrystal growing at home divide by he main stages
Step 1: Dilute salt, for crystal growing in the heated water (heat water needs to dissolve the salt little more than can be dissolved at room temperature). Dissolve salt as long as you are sure that salt is no dissolve more (saturated solution!). I recommend to use distilled water (not contain other salts)
Stage 2: saturated solution is poured into another container, where it is possible to make crystal growing (given the fact that it will increase). At this stage, make sure that the solution is not cool.
Step 3: Link the crystal of salt to the thread and attach it to the edge of the Cup (capacity), which is poured a saturated solution (этап 3). Crystal dip in saturated solution.
Step 4: Transfer capacity with a saturated solution and crystal in a place where there is no draft, vibration and strong light.
Step 5: Cover the container with crystal by anything (such as paper) from dust. Leave the solution for a couple of days.
it is Important!
1. the crystal cannot be removed from solution during all process
2. avoid getting dust in saturated solution, it is most preferable to use distilled water
3. to monitor the level of saturated solution, periodically (once or two a week) update the solution
raphics of solubility salts in the water
Step 1: issolve salt in a heated water
Step 2: Stir well (until the salt is not dissolve)
Step 3: Bindable and drop the sewing thread in oversaturated solution
Step 4: ДGive solution to cool down and wait for the emergence of small crystals of copper sulphate
Step 5: Crystal of copper sulphate - if you wait a little longer!