In the late nineteenth century, scientists discovered that terrible disease, in which there is damage to the nervous system caused by absence of specific substances in food. In 1912 in Poland selected such substance from rice bran and is called vitamin (from lat. vita "life").
Now everyone knows this word . Vitamins is a chemical compound that is required for the normal functioning of the body in very small quantities.
-was opened one of the first! And was able to get from carrots in 1920. But, of course, the main valuable properties were studied later - only to the 60-th years of the 20 century.Researchers have noted that after taking it vitamin A after 4 hours significantly increases cellular activity (especially to the skin). If getting the vitamin to extend and adopt it for at least one week, you will notice an improvement in skin elasticity. However, as observations showed, that the elasticity of the skin increases on 14%. If the length of the admission more than 2 months?, can improve skin elasticity on 22%. Taking vitamin a contributes to the prevention of skin diseases. Another useful feature is to improve the colour of the skin and to remove minor irregularities of skin by its inclusion in cosmetic products such as lotions.
What better to take vitamin a for better absorption:
fruit, fish, fish oil, vegetables, spinach, parsley.
Vitamin B - here is a group of vitamins, starting from B1 to B12. They are useful because they help in the absorption of unsaturated fats, contribute to the formation of red blood cells and refresh the skin.
One of the first of this group was selected vitamin B5. It is widely used in cosmetic products, including, as panthenol - as a powerful anti-inflammatory agent. The whole group has a positive effect on the skin, but vitamin B12, among other things, promotes absorption of vitamin C.
If you feel headaches or poor sleep may not be enough vitamins from group B.
In food, this group can be found in bread, grain, yeast, as well as potatoes, carrots, raw egg yolks and bananas.
Vitamin C possesses powerful anti-inflammatory effect, improves the skin, helps strengthen blood vessels. It is especially useful for people who lead a busy lifestyle, being able to support the immune system, useful for people, has a little sleep time. In addition, vitamin C helps to restore damaged tissues. It is just necessary to those who smoke. With regular use of vitamin nicotine is not absorbed by the body.
Ascorbic acid is vitamin C, independently participates in the body in many enzymatic reactions.In particular, it is necessary for protein synthesis of the connective tissue of animals, collagen. Plants and many animal species are able themselves to produce ascorbic acid. But, for example, human and Guinea pig has lost this ability in the course of evolution. So we all need to get it together with food 50-100 mg per day.
Plant foods (pepper, cabbage, black currant, cranberry, raspberry, gooseberry and especially citrus) rich by vitamin C.
The lack of vitamin C in humans develops scurvy: gums become weak and start to bleed. Connective tissue fibers are not formed in the body because of the lack of ascorbic acid.
Very often scurvy struck the mariners for a long time deprived of fresh vegetables and fruits. All of these vitamins (thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin and ascorbic acid), as well as some other highly soluble in water are called water-soluble.
Our body is "not able" to independently synthesize vitamins or produces its too few and therefore should receive them with food.
People need them only from a few micrograms to a few milligrams per day. But if the main components of food - proteins, fats and carbohydrates needed by the body as energy sources and "building material" to create new molecules, vitamins a different "task". They play the role of the "mouse", without which the heroes of the famous tales could not "pull the turnip". In fact, many vital processes occur in the cell only when their participation: for the normal functioning of enzymes (essential in the cell biocatalysts) requires specialized molecules assistants nonprotein nature, acting in conjunction with enzymes. Scientists call such molecules cofactors. Cofactors, representing organic compounds, named coenzymes. Some of them are very firmly bound to the enzyme.
It turned out that the majority of vitamins are not that different, as precursors of various cofactors in the body. The cell can synthesize these cofactors only finish half - vitamins. For example, a substance that is extracted from rice bran, is called vitamin B1, or thiamine. This is a complex organic compound should be ingested in animal and human from the outside. With thiamine contact two phosphate groups, and it turns into a very important cofactor - tiaminpirofosfat.
Tiaminpirofosfat participates in many enzymatic reactions in our body. His presence in the cell is necessary for the normal flow of the Krebs cycle during which the cell extracts energy from "food molecules". It is therefore not surprising that an insufficient amount of vitamin B1 in the body leads to such severe diseases. Vitamin B1 in many baked goods, peas, chicken and pork.
Battery of electrons to the FAD (or flavine adenine dinucleotide) involved in many redox reactions in our body, for example, in breathing.
FAD acts as a cofactor of some enzymes, and in most cases it is very closely associated with them. For the synthesis of FAD the body needs ready organic substance, that is named Riboflavin or vitamin B2.Its main sources are beans, yeast, meat, milk, cheese. We need vitamin D, as B1, about 2 mg per day. Lack of Riboflavin often is cause to skin damage and eyesight.
The predecessor of the other batteries electrons of coenzymes NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) - used vitamin e, or nicotinic acid.
People need 15-20 mg vitamin e per day, nicotinic acid mainly is contained in meat. If the body loses it, the disease pellagra develops: damaged the skin and mucous membranes, experiencing neuropsychiatric disorders. Its name nicotinic acid received from another derivative of pyridine - nicotine. Unlike vitamin e nicotine is poisonous for body, and 100-200 mg of this substance can cause death.
There are vitamins that are soluble only in organic solvents, they are called fat-soluble. These include vitamins A, D, E and K. Vitamin A "responsible" for eyesight, vitamin K - for blood clotting vitamin D - for the transport of calcium ions (Ca2+), vitamin E protects lipid membranes. Usually, fat-soluble, the body needs less than water-soluble, is not more than 1 mg per day. But lack one or the other can lead to quite serious consequences. For example, the lack of vitamin D causes rickets, and vitamin A - "chicken blindness" (a disorder of the ability to see in low light) and lower resistance to infectious diseases. Vitamin D can be obtained from eggs, all kinds of cheese, butter, sprouted wheat, olives, corn. Vitamin A found in carrots, tomatoes, spinach, lettuce, parsley, beans, green peas. Vitamin E in many vegetable oils, green peas, sunflower seeds, nuts.
Some substances resembling vitamins in its structure, can take the place of a cofactor in the enzyme. However, they behave as "dog in the manger" because they are not involved in the enzymatic reaction and is not admitted to participate in it this cofactor. In addition, some chemical compounds in nature can destroy vitamins. Such "harmful" substances called antivitamins.
For example, the body is very rarely feels the lack of a vitamin H (or Biotin) due to bacteria in the intestine and synthesizing it.
But the increase consumption of raw eggs the Biotin is missing. Raw eggs contain protein avidin, which strong binds Biotin.
"Captured" by Avidya, vitamin H can not perform its biological function. As a result, the starts to peel off the skin and the hair falls out.
Scientists know only about 20 different vitamins. Deficiency of any of them leads to any disorders of the body. With a strong lack of diseases develop such as beriberi, pellagra, scurvy or rickets. With a slight lack of vitamins can be just general malaise, fatigue, irritability and loss of appetite.This condition is called hypovitaminosis. Excessive consumption of vitamins also leads to undesirable consequences for the organism - hypervitaminosis.
So, what nutrients help to keep health and youthfulness of the skin!
Anyone who wants to have healthy skinmust eat so that the body has received enough vitamins and minerals. Some especially good for the skin below:
yeast is specially grown in pharmaceutical laboratories, contain the necessary proteins and vitamins. In yeast is very important for skin vitamin B5, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects.
Vitamin C has a strengthening effect on the capillaries and vessels, through his blood (thus the skin gets enough oxygen). If a person dull, not by age flaccid, pale skin, most likely, his body lacks vitamin C or group B.
Vitamin B2 and B6 responsible for a healthy and even complexion, B1 is necessary for skin rejuvenation.
vitamin A provides elasticity to the skin, as well as B1, rejuvenates the skin, keeping it moist. Zinc (Zn) helps to regenerate and restore damaged skin.
Care face skin and hand skin can be done using creams. In cream composition, intended for skin care, includes all the basic components that supports, nourishes and moisturizes the skin!
Should know about some features of this drink!
It is not recommended to drink tea on an empty stomach. Strong tea is contraindicated for people suffering from atherosclerosis. In the case of insomnia, you should not drink tea (especially green!) after 18.00, such as tea contains caffeine is a substance stimulating action. It was also found that strong tea harmful in inflammatory diseases, as contained in it theophylline helps to increase body temperature.
Salt (NaCl) is harmful and useful!
When the diet too much food salt in the tissues of the body retain water, which causes high blood pressureоли! And the excess fluid creates an additional burden on the heart. To strengthen the heart muscles you need to eat more foods containing potassium (K): for example cabbage and pumpkin!