Properties of fats
|Properties of fats||Saponification of fats||Wax|
|Fats are complex esters of triatomic alcohol (glycerin) and higher carboxylic acids. All animal fats are solid substances. The only exception is fish oil.
Vegetable fats are liquid substances, the exception is of coconut oil.
There is a significant difference between vegetable and animal fats. So, the liquid fat consists of an unsaturated acids, and the solid fatsconsists of saturated. For example, liquid fat - contains oleic acid, C17H33COOH or linoleic acid (C17H31COOH. Solid fat contains, for example, palmitic acid (C15H31COOH or stearic acid (C17H35COOH.
So, fats and oils belong to the class of conplex esters. Fats with proteins and carbohydrates constitute a group of organic compounds that have exceptional physiological importance: they are an main part of food!
Fats are important in technical terms: they are the source of glycerin, higher carboxylic acids and soaps. Some vegetable fats and oils are used for manufacture of varnish, linoleum, oil paint and lacquers. Some of the fat, due to its high viscosity, can serve as a lubricant.
Fats consist of a variety of acids. Managed to extract acids from the C4 to C24, as saturated and unsaturated. So, the most important saturated acids extracted from fat is stearic, caproic, caprylic, capric, oil acid. Unsaturated oleic, linoleic, linolenic.
There are liquid and Solid fats. But those and others are formed by the same alcohol. It is easy to guess the acids in it's are the basis of their aggregate state (limit - for solid fats, unsaturated - for liquid fats).
The most important properties of fats include:
MargarineArtificial fat is used for food purposes (production of margarine), stearic and soap industries. If we get fat is designed to produce margarine then hydrogenation (hydrogen absorption) is carried out only in half.
What is Margarine? This used product is a mixture of animal fat and vegetable oil (cottonseed, sesame). Instead of animal fat can be used hydrogenated vegetable oil. To mixture has smell and color resembled a cow's milk in result it needs to properly proportioning the constituents of oils and fats.
WaxDo you know what a wax? Natural wax is an ester of higher fatty acids and high alcohols. As impurities they contain available fatty acids, colors, sugar, alcohol.
Wax is highly plastic, impervious for gas and liquids. Wax and waxy substances insoluble in water and cold alcohol, but soluble in hot gasoline, chloroform and ether. This chemical substance is widely distributed in nature in large amounts in the oil and peat, a thin layer of wax is on the surface of stems, leaves, fruits and flowers of plants, protecting them from external influences and excessive evaporation of moisture; wax is formed by of certain kinds of insects.
Widely used synthetic wax and waxy substances. This substance forms a stable emulsion, which give the necessary structure and Shine creams, lipstick and makeup. Most often for such purposes used the beeswax, spermaceti (from the skull of the whale), lanolin (from sheep wool), carnaby wax (from the leaves of some palm), ozokerite (mineral oil product) and some synthetic products (e.g., gasoline).
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