Getting acid at home

Getting acid at home

Try to get an alkali or acid at home with the help of improvised means. Of course, the drug will not be concentrated (this is achieved using the special equipment), but the characteristic properties of acids will be noticeable.

The easiest way to get the acid at home will be based on the electrolysis of any solution that dissociates with the formation of the sulfate ion. Another way to get acid is also possible, but it needs to to get sulfur dioxide, or other chemicals, which might not be available, and they are all quite dangerous to work with them at home. Therefore, we get, for example, sulfuric acid (dilute) with copper sulfate. The sulfuric acid is got from sulfate is not particularly dangerous, besides, the means to get it you need few resources. So for experience we need a source current (perfect power supply 15 to 30 volts). The anode (electrode connected to the positive side) we will take the graphite - that have not dissolved. Cathode - it is better to take form a graphite plate, but you can also use copper foil.

Prepare solution of sulphate and put into it electrodes. At the cathode will see the selection loose brown substance - is copper.

What is copper sulphate? It's copper, dissolved in sulfuric acid. Prepare periodically remove the cathode " - " and cleanse it from released copper. The longer the experience, the solution of our electrolyte becomes lighter - it is removed from solution. If to put the indicator in brightened solution, the color will change to red. After all it is sulfuric acid! Of course, it is diluted, but still shows its properties. In order to more ensure in it the acid you take food soda and sprinkle on it with acid, you will see a rapid release of gas, it is carbon dioxide. Sulfuric acid reacts with the food soda and formed sodium (Na2SO4), water and the bubbles of carbon dioxide.

Planned out! For some substances it is rather weak (it is highly diluted) and the reactions will not go.

Of course, you can increase the concentration of the acid with dissolved in water more copper sulfate or with evaporation of excess water with the acid. Last do not recommend, because pairs of acids are very dangerous.

  • HCl - pH=1,0
  • CCl3COOH - pH=1,2
  • H2C2O2 - pH=1,3
  • NaHSO4 - pH=1,4
  • wine acid pH=2,0
  • lemon acid - pH=2,1
  • Lactic acid, pH=2.4
  • Salicylic acid - pH=2,4
  • Succinic acid - pH=2,7
  • C6H5COOH - pH=2,8
  • CH3COOH - pH=2,9
  • NH4H2PO4 - pH=4,0
  • H2S - pH=4,1
  • NaH2PO4 - pH=4,5
  • KH2PO4 - pH=4,7
  • HCN - pH=5,1
  • NH4Cl - pH=5,1
  • H3BO3 - pH=5,3
  • (NH4)2SO4 - pH=5,5
  • Phenol - pH=5,5
  • CaCO3 - pH=7,3
  • (NH4)2HPO4 - pH=7,9
  • C6H5COONa - pH=8,0
  • NaHCO3 - pH=8,3
  • CH3COONa - pH=8,9
  • Na2HPO4 - pH=9,2
  • Mg(OH)2 - pH=10,0
  • KCN - pH=11,1
  • NH3 - pH=11,3
  • Na2CO3 - pH=11,6
  • Na3PO4 - pH=12,0
  • Ca(OH)2 - pH=12,4
  • Na2SiO3 - pH=12,6
  • K2S - pH=12,8
  • NaOH - pH=13,0

What is the acid more acidic?!

Probably, have You ever asked the question "what of the acids is more acidic ?!" "or what of the more caustic alkalies ?!" This question can be answered with considering the pH of solutions of acids and alkalis. Acids very much, so consider only the most basic.
The pH value of the solution depends on the concentration. Therefore, the table shows the pH values of aqueous solutions at a concentration of 0.1 mol/l. For slightly soluble compounds (marked with an asterisk), shown the pH of the saturated solution. The lower pH value of the solution, the acid is "acidic" and Vice versa, the more the pH value of the solution, the more caustic lye! So, if you drink concentrated lemon juice, acidity of gastric juice decreases...!? Indeed, the solution of citric acid, only dilute the stronger hydrochloric acid contained in gastric juice.

Acidity of the water

Most organisms can exist only in environments. This is due to the fact that with the action of the ions H+ and OH- proteins that contain acidic or basic groups, change their configuration and charge. In strongly acidic and strongly alkaline environments, breaks peptide bond that joins individual amino acid residues in long protein chains. Because of this, ultra - (high alkaline) solutions cause alkaline burns of skin and destroys silk and wool, made of protein. All organisms have to maintain in intracellular fluids specific value pH (as well as the cell consists of water on 80% - water acidity). Natural water is able to keep pH value more or less constant even if the outside gets a certain amount of acid or base. If in a liter of distilled water to add a drop of concentrated hydrochloric acid, the pH decreases from 7 to 4. But if a drop of hydrochloric acid to add per liter of river water with pH=7, the rate is almost unchanged. Acids and bases that fall into natural water are neutralized of dissolved carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ions:
H++HCO-3→ H2O+CO2;
OH-+CO2→ HCO-3.