Enzymes usage

How to separate the enzyme from the reaction products

Enzymes usage

To date, in various sectors of the economy enzymes usage is an advanced achievement. Enzymes have found special importance in the food industry. After all, it is because of the presence of enzymes in the test that its raising and swelling occurs. As is known, the swelling of the test occurs under the action of carbon dioxide CO2, which in turn is formed as a result of decomposition starch under the action of the enzyme amylase, which is already contained in the flour. But in the flour of this enzyme is not enough, it is usually added. Another enzyme protease, which gives the test gluten, helps to retain carbon dioxide in the test.

The production of alcoholic beverages also involves enzymes. In this case, widely used enzymes that are in yeast. A variety of Beers are got with various combinations of complex compounds of enzymes. Enzymes are also involved in the dissolution of sediments in alcoholic beverages, for example, to beer does not have the sediment the added protease (papain, pepsin), which dissolve the precipitating protein compounds.

Production of dairy products, such as sour milk, is based on the chemical conversion of lactose (i.e. milk sugar) into lactic acid. Kefir is produced in this way, but the production feature is that not only dairy bacteria, but also yeast. Lactose processing produces not only lactic acid, but also ethyl alcohol. When receiving kefir, there is another reaction that is quite useful for the human body - this is hydrolysis of proteins, that in consequence of human consumption of kefir contributes to its better absorption.

Cheese Production is also associated with enzymes. Milk contains protein-casein, that in the process of chemical reaction changes with the action of protease, and precipitates in a result of the reaction .

Proteases are widely used for the processing of leather raw materials. Its ability to produce hydrolysis of proteins (protein splitting) is widely used to remove persistent stains from chocolate, sauces, blood, etc. Cellulase Enzyme - used in washing powders. It is able to remove "pellets" from the surface of the tissue. An important feature of washing with powders containing whole enzyme complexes is that washing in should be done in warm but not hot water, as hot water for enzymes is disastrous.

Use of enzymes in medicine is associated with their ability to heal wounds, dissolve blood clots. Sometimes enzymes are deliberately introduced into the body to activate them, and sometimes because of the excessive activity of enzymes, can introduce substances that act as inhibitors (substances that slow down of chemical reactions). For example, with the action of individual inhibitors, bacteria lose the ability to multiply and grow.

The use of enzymes in medicine is also associated with various analyses to determine the diseases. In this case, enzymes play the role of substances that enter into chemical reaction or contribute to chemical transformations in the body's physiological fluids. As a result, we have certain products of chemical reactions, according to that the laboratories recognize the presence of a disease pathogen. Among these enzymes and their application is the most known enzyme glucose oxidase that allows you to determine the presence of sugar in the urine or blood. In addition, along with the above, there are enzymes that are able to determine the presence of alcohol in the blood. This enzyme is calledalcohol dehydrogenase

How to separate the enzyme from the reaction products

Imagine that we have an enzyme in a liquid state, it is ready to carry out a chemical reaction. But how to separate the enzyme from the reaction products!? For such purposes, solid catalysts are specially used, then the separation of reaction products is not difficult. In addition, in the second half of the 20th century learned to attach enzymes to solid carriers. This process is called - immobilization of enzymes, that is, their immobility; it has become widely used in catalytic reactions.

There are two ways to attach enzymes to the carrier: the first method – at the physical level, that is the enzyme does not form chemical bonds with the carrier; the second – chemical – respectively, with the formation of chemical bonds. The physical method usesadsorption (binding the substance to the body surface). In this case, the enzyme is attached to the solid carrier with, for example, electrostatic bonds. Of course, such a fastening of the enzyme is not strong.

In another way, there are physical methods that hold the enzyme firmly near the carrier. For this, it is necessary that the structure of the carrier is a lattice species, for which the enzyme enters and is delayed there. In the process of chemical reaction, the reagents get behind the lattice, are exposed to the enzyme, after which the reaction products freely come out of the lattice.

Forimmobilization of the enzyme (its immobility), gels can be used, which are one of the types of dispersed systems consisting of many small particles of different molecules. By hydrogen bonds, these particles are held close to each other, thus forming a spatial grid (or structure). If such a solution containsenzyme, it is retained with such structure.

Structure, able thus to hold the enzymes that are polystyrene or nylon filaments. In the case of stretching, the structural "grid" of the material expands and the enzyme freely penetrates inside. In the normal state, the enzyme can not leave the lattice, and the chemical reaction products freely penetrate through it.

Enzymes usage

Immobilization of the enzyme can be carried out with chemical means: the enzyme protein is attached with chemical bond to the carrier and to the neighboring enzyme, thus forming whole fixed chains of large size (outside - like a solid particle). The enzymes connected in this way in chemical reactions do not connect with the reaction products. In addition, the enzyme protein is less susceptible to denaturation due to the fact that it loses its excessive mobility and, as studies have shown, the enzymes are difficult to destroy in such state.